Job is when someone works professionally for wages. Often used as synonym for occupation.

  • Traditional economy:
  1. a) Jobs are permanent (government jobs).
  2. b) More job security: In traditional economy, employees are hired for lifetime. They can do work in the same corporation until their retirement.
  3. c) Fix timings: Government jobs mostly have fixed timings. That is employees have to work for the fixed schedules. Most of the corporations have 9 to 5 timings.
  4. d) People always prefer single job: In these kinds of jobs, people have only one job. They do not prefer to have any other work than this. One reason is that government employees are not allowed to have another job.
  5. e) Less stress on mind: As people have one fixed timing job, they do not have much stress. Their jobs are permanent, they can have enough leaves and they are usually not given deadlines. Moreover, government employees are allotted with pensions after retirement.
  • Modern economy:
  1. a) Jobs are temporary: Most of them are on contract (private jobs).
  2. b) Less job security: In modern economy, employers hire temporarily hire employees. As the population is increasing day by day, employers have many people who are expert in certain skills. Employers know that they are not going to deprive of the employees in anyway. Due to that the replacement rate is high. Furthermore, employers do not neglect the minute mistakes and fire the employee.
  3. c) There is no fix timing of work: In private jobs, there is no fixed timing. Employees have to do work for longer hours as they are given deadlines to complete.
  4. d) People do more than one job, simultaneously: In modern economy, people used to have more than one jobs.
  5. e) More stress: In modern economy, employees are given targets and deadlines to complete. Otherwise they can lose their jobs. Moreover, there is more competition in the private companies. Which can be one of the reason of stress.
  • Role of Digitalization:
  • Negative: Modern technology and digitalization has empowered the companies to surveillance on its workers, which has lead to more harassment.
  • Positive: Digitalization has empowered the workers who now have more job opportunities due to online platforms. There are more opportunities for cyber jobs as well as people can find jobs on the internet.
  • Gig Economy:

Gig economy is opposite of the permanent jobs. In gig economy, people have contracted jobs or they have freelancing jobs.

  • Benefits of Gig Economy:
  1. a) Every worker works for his own benefit which was not there in traditional economy.
  2. b) It gives more opportunities to learn new things and polish skills.
  3. c) Workers can easily switch to their personal life whenever required.
  • Problems with Modern jobs:
  1. a) More stress both mentally and physically.
  2. b) No stability/ security- no insurance and medical facility as compare to traditional jobs.
  3. c) Since, every individual has a golden time for youthfulness in which he is mentally and physically empowered he can easily balance himself in gig economy but things can turn bad once the individual gets old and requires a sense of security which is not given in modern jobs.
  4. d) The value of workers decreased in the gig economy which was there in traditional economy.
  • Solutions Required for Fighting with Modern Job Issues:
  1. a) Awareness campaigns for creating awareness among workers about their rights.
  2. b) Government must create laws to ensure the safety of workers in gig economy. For example, basic salary, insurance and medical facilities compulsion.

          Sample Topics:


  • People are spending more hours at the workplace in some countries. What are the positive and negative impacts of this trend?
  • Some feel governments rather than private companies should be in charge of medical services. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • Gig economy is trending nowadays. Why is this the case? What are the problems related to the gig economy?
  • Some people believe that traditional jobs are more beneficial in a long run. While others believe that modern jobs gives more opportunities to the people. Discuss both views and give relevant example.


IELTS Common Essay Topic: Nature and Environment

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