Stadiums: Past, Present and Future

Here are explanations of the Questions of passage named ‘Stadiums: Past, Present and Future’ which is the from the Cambridge 17 book. The Questions that have been asked are ‘Blanks’, ‘MCQs’ and ‘Finding Information’ You will find the Locations of the Reading Answers, Keywords (highlighted and underlined) and justifications (Italic).

Questions 14-17

Reading Passage 2 has seven paragraphs, A-G.

Which section contains the following information?

Write the correct letter, A-G, in boxes 14-17 on your answer sheet.

NB   You may use any letter more than once.

14   a mention of negative attitudes towards stadium building projects.

Location and Answer- A Paragraph

Explanation: The ‘Negative attitudes’ is the main keyword of the Question. It is written as ‘growing skepticism’ which means feeling of doubt. Further, it becomes very clear with words like ‘fallen into disuse and disrepair’.

15   figures demonstrating the environmental benefits of a certain stadium.

Location and Answer- F Paragraph

Explanation: The only figures which are mentioned in the passage are in the F paragraph which are easy to find. Moreover, it is crystal in the last line of the pargraph as ‘this is proof that a stadium….. has a decidedly positive impact in terms of reduction of Carbon dioxide emissions’.

16   examples of the wide range of facilities available at some new stadiums

Location and Answer- E Paragraph

Explanation: The main keyword of the question is ‘facilities’ and the examples of those in relation to new stadiums are written in the middle of the E Paragraph. The lines start as ‘There is a growing trend ……..to be equipped with public spaces and services……and green space’.

17   reference to the disadvantages of the stadiums built during a certain era.

Location and Answer- D Paragraph

Explanation: Talking about the disadvantages of the stadiums, two references have been made in the D paragraph of the passage. Firstly, the writer says, ‘But some of the flexibility was lost in the beginning of the 20th century (20th century= certain era)….for night time matches. Secondly, he further elaborates in the second part of the same paragraph as ‘These factors mean that they may not be as accessible………require more energy to run and contribute to the urban heat’.

Questions 18-22

Complete the summary below.

Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 18-22 on your answer sheet.

Roman amphitheatres

The Roman stadium of Europe have proved very versatile. The amphitheatre of Arles, for example, was converted first into a 18 ……………………,

Location- 3rd line of the B Paragraph

Explanation- The main keyword of which comes before the 18th blank is ‘Amphitheatre of Arles’ which is written in the first line of the B paragraph, that actually helps to locate the answer. Moreover, ‘For example’ is changed as ‘Best example’ in the passage. It must be noted here that ‘a’ article is in front of the 18th blank which means that the answer would also have ‘a’ in front of it.

Answer: Fortress

then into a residential area and finally into an arena where spectators could watch 19 …………………… .

Location- 4rd line of the B Paragraph

Explanation- ‘a residential area’ is written as ‘village containing more than 200 houses’. Another keyword ‘an arena’ is the same in the passage as well. But, ‘watch’ which comes before the 19th Blank is exchanged with words like ‘for the staging’

Answer: Bullfights

Meanwhile, the arena in Verona, one of the oldest Roman amphitheatres, is famous today as a venue where 20 …………………… is performed.

Location- Last line of the B Paragraph

Explanation- ‘Verona; is the main keyword of the Question which is easy to find in the middle of the B Paragraph, starting the line as ‘Another example is imposing the arena of Verona….’. ‘Venue’ has been paraphrased as ‘Prime sites’, thus makes it very clear to find the answer.

Answer: Opera

The site of Lucca’s amphitheatre has also been used for many purposes over the centuries, including the storage of 21 …………………… .

Location- Middle of the C Paragraph

Explanation- ‘Lucca’s amphitheatre’is the main keyword which comes before the 21st Blank and it has been written as ‘Italian Town of Lucca’. Reference to ‘centuries’ has been written as ‘until 19th century’. Moreover, ‘Storage’ is presented as ‘depot’ and ‘prison’.

Answer: Salt.

It is now a market square with 22 …………………… and homes incorporated into the remains of the Roman Amphitheatre.

Location- Last line of the C Paragraph

Explanation- ‘Homes’ has be paraphrased as ‘residences’. In addition to this, ‘Market Square’ is written as ‘Public Square’ in the passage.

Grammar Rule- The Question has been written as ‘……..and home’ which means that home and the other thing has been written down at same level with conjunction ‘and’.

Answer: Shops

Questions 23-24

Choose TWO letters, A-E.

Write the correct letters in boxes 23 and 24 on your answer sheet.

When comparing twentieth-century stadiums to ancient amphitheatres in Section D, which TWO negative features does the writer mention?

  They are less imaginatively designed.

  They are less spacious.

  They are in less convenient locations.

  They are less versatile.

E   They are made of less durable materials

Location- Middle of the D Paragraph

Explanation: ‘twentieth-century stadiums’ has been written exactly as 20th century in the D paragraph, which makes it easy to locate the answers. Even ‘ancient amphitheatres’ is can be found same in the first line as well.

Answer: C & D (‘They are in less convenient locations’ as written in the passage as ‘These factors mean that they may not be as accessible to the…..’ and ‘They are less versatile’ as ‘designed for sporting use only’)

Questions 25-26

Choose TWO letters, A-E.

Write the correct letters in boxes 25 and 26 on your answer sheet.

Which TWO advantages of modern stadium design does the writer mention?

  offering improved amenities for the enjoyment of sports events

  bringing community life back into the city environment

  facilitating research into solar and wind energy solutions

  enabling local residents to reduce their consumption of electricity

E   providing a suitable site for the installation of renewable power generators

Location- Middle of E Paragraph and Middle of F Paragraph.

Explanation: ‘bringing community life’ is written as ‘helping to regenerate urban spaces’ and ‘installation of renewable power generators’ is paraphrased as ‘fitting photovoltaic panels and rise high’.

Answer: B & E

Below is the link to the 1st passage of the Same Test from IELTS Cambridge Book 17

The Development of the London Underground Railway

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