How to make wise decisions?- Reading Answers Explanations- CAM 16

How to make wise decisions?- Reading Answers Explanations- CAM 16

Here are explanations of the Questions of passage named ‘How to make wise decisions’ which is from the Cambridge 16 book. The Questions that have been asked are MCQs, Summary Blanks and True/False/Not Given. You will find the Locations of the Reading Answers, Keywords (highlighted and underlined) and justifications.

 

Questions 27-30

Choose the correct letter, ABC or D.

Write the correct letter in boxes 27-30 on your answer sheet.

27   What point does the writer make in the first paragraph?

A   Wisdom appears to be unique to the human race.

B   A basic assumption about wisdom may be wrong.

C   Concepts of wisdom may depend on the society we belong to.

D   There is still much to be discovered about the nature of wisdom.

Location: 1st paragraph

Explanation: The answer to this question is in the second line of the paragraph.The writer says, ‘trait possessed by small handful of bearded philosophers…the latest studies suggest that most of us have ability to make wise decisions…’this makes the answer very clear as the basic assumption about wisdom was wrong.

Answer: B

28   What does Igor Grossmann suggest about the ability to make wise decisions?

A   It can vary greatly from one person to another.

B   Earlier research into it was based on unreliable data.

C   The importance of certain influences on it was underestimated.

D   Various branches of psychology define it according to their own criteria.

Location: 2nd paragraph

Explanation: The answer to this question is in the first line of the paragraph. The writer says, ‘It appears that experiential, situational and cultural factors are even more powerful in shaping wisdom than previously imagined…’Here, Igor Grossmann suggest that the importance of certain influences on it was underestimated as certain factors are more powerful than previously imagined. Thus, this makes the answer easy to understand.

Answer: C

29   According to the third paragraph, Grossmann claims that the level of wisdom an individual shows

A   can be greater than they think it is.

B   will be different in different circumstances.

C   may be determined by particular aspects of their personality.

D   should develop over time as a result of their life experiences.

Location: 3rd paragraph

Explanation: The location of the answer is in the last line of the paragraph as it has been written ‘some situations are more likely to promote wisdom than others…’   Thus, the level of wisdom is different in different circumstances. Here, situations and circumstances are synonyms.

Answer: B

30   What is described in the fifth paragraph?

A   a difficulty encountered when attempting to reason wisely

B   an example of the type of person who is likely to reason wisely

C   a controversial view about the benefits of reasoning wisely

D   a recommended strategy that can help people to reason wisely

Location: 5th paragraph

Explanation: The answer to this question is in the third line of the paragraph and the writer says, ‘Research suggesting that when adopting….observer viewpoint we reason more broadly…Thus the answer is D

Answer: D

How to make wise decisions?- Reading Answers Explanations- CAM 16

Questions 31-35

Complete the summary using the list of words, A-J, below.

Write the correct letter, A-J, in boxes 31-35 on your answer sheet.

The characteristics of wise reasoning

Igor Grossmann and colleagues have established four characteristics which enable us to make wise decisions. It is important to have a certain degree of 31 ………………….. regarding the extent of our knowledge,

Location: 4th paragraph

Explanation: The answer to this question is there in the second line of the passage and the main keyword ‘four characteristics’ is there in the passage. Moreover, the writer says, ‘one is intellectual humility or recognition of the limits…’Here limits=extent, humility=modesty

Answer: D

 and to take into account 32 ………………….. which may not be the same as our own.

Location: 4th paragraph

Explanation: The location of the answer is in the last line of the paragraph. ‘Take into account’ is paraphrased as ‘compromise or integration…’and ‘not be the same’ has been paraphrased as ‘different…’ Here, beliefs and opinions are synonyms.

Answer: A

We should also be able to take a broad 33 ………………….. of any situation. Another key characteristic is being aware of the likelihood of alterations in the way that people relate to each other.

Location: 4th paragraph

Explanation: The answer to this question is in the second line of the passage and the writer says, ‘another appreciation of perspective wider than the issue at hand’. Here ‘broad’ and ‘wider’ are synonyms. ‘Perspective’ and ‘view’ are synonyms.

Answer: C

Grossmann also believes that it is better to regard scenarios with 34 ………………….. .

Location: 5th paragraph

Explanation: The main keyword ‘scenarios’ helps to locate the answer in the first line of the paragraph. ‘Better to regard’ has been written as ‘reliable ways to support…’The writer says, ‘look at scenarios from third-party perspective. Therefore, the answer is objectivity.

Answer: F

By avoiding the first-person perspective, we focus more on 35 ………………….. and on other moral ideals, which in turn leads to wiser decision-making.

Location: 5th paragraph

Explanation: The main keyword ‘first-person perspective’ has been written exactly in the passage and location of the answer is in the second last line of the passage as the writer says, ‘focus more on interpersonal and moral ideas such as justice and impartiality. Here impartiality and fairness are synonyms. Thus, this makes the answer very clear.

Answer: G

A     opinions               B     confidence           C     view

D     modesty                   problems             F     objectivity

G     fairness                H     experiences         I      range

J      reasons

How to make wise decisions?- Reading Answers Explanations- CAM 16

Questions 36-40

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 3?

In boxes 36-40 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE               if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE              if the statement contradicts the information

NOT GIVEN    if there is no information on this

36   Students participating in the job prospects experiment could choose one of two perspectives to take.

Location: 7th paragraph

Explanation: The main keyword ‘job prospects’ has been written as it is in the passage and answer to this question is in the last line of the passage. The question statement contradicts with the passage statement as the writer says, ‘participants in the group assigned to the distant observer role…’which is opposite to ‘choose one of two perspectives…’Here, assigned and choose are opposite words.

Answer: False

37   Participants in the couples experiment were aware that they were taking part in a study about wise reasoning.

Location: 8th paragraph

Explanation: The main keyword ‘wise reasoning’ is there in the last line of the passage but there is no information on whether the couples were aware or not about the experiment. Thus, no information available.

Answer: Not Given

38   In the couples experiments, the length of the couples’ relationships had an impact on the results.

Location: 8th paragraph

Explanation: Though the writer talks about the couples experiment in the whole passage but there is no information about the impact of the length of the couples’ relationships on the results. Therefore, this makes the answer very clear.

Answer: Not Given

39   In both experiments, the participants who looked at the situation from a more detached viewpoint tended to make wiser decisions.

Location: 7th and 8th paragraph

Explanation: The answer to this question is in the last line of the 7th paragraph and it has been written that ‘participants in the group assigned to the distant observer role…wise related reasoning…’Moreover, in the last line of the 8th paragraph, the writer says, ‘Couple in the other’s eyes’ condition were significantly more likely to rely on wise reasoning…’Here detached viewpoint is paraphrased as distant observer and other’s viewpoint.

Answer: True

40   Grossmann believes that a person’s wisdom is determined by their intelligence to only a very limited extent.

Location: Last paragraph

Explanation: The main keyword ‘intelligence’ is there in the first line of the passage and it has been written as ‘we might associate wisdom with intelligence…’Here ‘determined’ is paraphrased as ‘associate’ in the passage. ‘a very limited extent’ is visible as ‘only a small positive…’Thus, the question statement is same as the passage statement.

Answer: True.

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