The future of work- Reading Answers Explanations CAM 16

The future of work- Reading Answers Explanations CAM 16

Here are explanations of the Questions of passage named ‘The future of work’ which is from the Cambridge 16 book. The Questions that have been asked are List of people, MCQs’ and Summary Blanks. You will find the Locations of the Reading Answers, Keywords (highlighted and underlined) and justifications.

Questions 27-30

Choose the correct letter, ABC or D.

Write the correct letter in boxes 27-30 on your answer sheet.

27   The first paragraph tells us about

A   the kinds of jobs that will be most affected by the growth of AI.

B   the extent to which AI will alter the nature of the work that people do.

C   the proportion of the world’s labour force who will have jobs in AI in the future.

D   the difference between ways that embodied and disembodied AI with impact on workers.

Location: 1st paragraph

Explanation: The answer to this question is in the first and second line of the paragraph as it has been written that ‘ 3-14% of the  global workforce will need to switch…Here ‘alter’ in the question and ‘switch’ in the passage are synonyms. Moreover, 3-14% is the proportion that refers to the extent to which A1 will alter.

Answer:  B

28   According to the second paragraph, what is Stella Pachidi’s view of the ‘knowledge economy’?

  It is having an influence on the number of jobs available.

  It is changing people’s attitudes towards their occupations.

  It is the main reason why the production sector is declining.

  It is a key factor driving current developments in the workplace.

Location: 2nd paragraph

Explanation: The answer to this question is in the first line of the paragraph and the main keywords are ‘Stella Pachidi’s’ and ‘knowledge economy’ and it has been written that ‘some of the most fundamental changes are happening…algorithmication’ that are dependent on data…’Here, ‘fundamental changes’ in the passage is paraphrased as ‘developments…’ in the question. Thus, the best option is ‘D’

Answer: D

29   What did Pachidi observe at the telecommunications company?

  staff disagreeing with the recommendations of AI

  staff feeling resentful about the intrusion of AI in their work

  staff making sure that AI produces the results that they want

  staff allowing AI to carry out tasks they ought to do themselves

Location: 7th paragraph

Explanation: The location of the answer is in the last line of the paragraph. Firstly, the main keyword ‘observe…’ has been written as ‘seeing…’ in the passage. Secondly, the writer says, ‘workers feed on algorithms with false data to reach their target’. Here, workers are making sure that A1 produces the results they want.

Answer: C

30   In his recently published research, Ewan McGaughey

  challenges the idea that redundancy is a negative thing.

  shows the profound effect of mass unemployment on society.

  highlights some differences between past and future job losses.

  illustrates how changes in the job market can be successfully handled.

Location: 12th paragraph

Explanation: The main Keyword ‘Ewan McGaughey’ helps to locate the answer in the first and second line of the paragraph. ‘recently published research…’ has been written exactly in the paragraph. ‘Social policies can tackle this through retraining and redeployment…’Thus, this makes the answer very clear.

Answer: D

The future of work- Reading Answers Explanations CAM 16

Questions 31-34

Complete the summary using the list of words, A-G, below.

Write the correct letter, A-G, in boxes 31-34 on your answer sheet.

The ‘algorithmication’ of jobs

Stella Pachidi of Cambridge Judge Business School has been focusing on the ‘algorithmication’ of jobs which rely not on production but on 31 …………………. .

While monitoring a telecommunications company,

Location:  2nd paragraph

Explanation: The location of the answer is in the First line of the paragraph.The main Keyword ‘Cambridge judge Business…’ has been written as it is in the passage. ‘Rely’ is paraphrased as ‘dependent’ and it has been written ‘dependent on data rather than on production…’ Here, data and information are synonyms. Thus, the answer is G.

Answer: G

Pachidi observed a growing 32 …………………. on the recommendations made by AI, as workers begin to learn through the ‘algorithm’s eyes’.

Location: 6th paragraph

Explanation: The main keyword is ‘algorithm’s eyes’ which is exactly as in the second line of the passage. ‘workers begin to learn’ is paraphrased as ‘workers learn through…’Moreover, ‘…Recommendations …’ is paraphrased as ‘dependent on instructions’ in the passage. Here dependent and reliance are synonyms.

Answer: E (reliance)

Meanwhile, staff are deterred from experimenting and using their own 33 …………………., and are therefore prevented from achieving innovation.

Location: 10th paragraph

Explanation: The answer to this question is in the last line of the paragraph. The writer says, ‘experimentation and human instinct lead to progress…Here, Instinct means ‘intuition’

Answer: C

To avoid the kind of situations which Pachidi observed, researchers are trying to make AI’s decision-making process easier to comprehend, and to increase users’ 34 …………………. with regard to the technology.

Location: 8th paragraph (1st line)

Explanation: The main keyword A1’s decision-making’ is as ‘how A1 decisions are made’ and another keyword ‘technology’ is there in the passage. Moreover, ‘making technologies more trustworthy…’ will increase the confidence of users in A1.Hence, confidence is the answer.

Answer: F

A   pressure                B   satisfaction            C   intuition

D   promotion             E   reliance                  F   confidence

G   information

Questions 35-40

Look at the following statements (Questions 35-40) and the list of people below.

Match each statement with the correct person, AB or C.

Write the correct letter, AB or C, in boxes 35-40 on your answer sheet.

NB   You may use any letter more than once.

35   Greater levels of automation will not result in lower employment.

Location: 10th paragraph

Explanation: The answer to this question is there in the first and second line ‘low believes the…if in 30 years, half of 100 jobs are being carried out by robots that mean we are left with just 50 jobs…’Here, automation refers to ‘robots’ in the passage. Thus, the answer is B.
Answer: B

36   There are several reasons why AI is appealing to businesses.

Location: 3rd paragraph

Explanation: The main keyword ‘appealing’ has been written as ‘attracted’ in the first line of the passage. ‘using algorithms because they want to make choices…’Here, writer use ‘because’ for giving ‘reasons’. Therefore, the answer is A.

Answer: A

37   AI’s potential to transform people’s lives has parallels with major cultural shifts which occurred in previous eras.

Location: 12th paragraph

Explanation: The answer to this question is in the second line of the paragraph. ‘A1 and robotics will mean a jobless future …change can mean redundancies…’so A1 automation and robotics can cause unemployment. Thus the answer is Ewan McGaughey. Thus, the answer is C.

Answer: C

38   It is important to be aware of the range of problems that AI causes.

Location: 8th paragraph

Explanation: The answer to this question is in the last line of the paragraph. Says Pachidi, ‘aware of the range of problems that A1 causes’ has been paraphrased as ‘fully understand the dilemmas…regarding expertise, occupational boundaries and control’. These are some problems that A1 causes. So, the answer is A.

Answer: A

39   People are going to follow a less conventional career path than in the past.

Location: 9th paragraph

Explanation: The main keyword is ‘conventional career path’ that helps to locate the answer in the second line of the paragraph as it has been paraphrased as ‘traditional trajectory…’Moreover, the writer says, ‘followed by a pensioned retirement is a thing of the past, says low. Instead, he envisages a multistage employment…’. Thus, the answer is B.

Answer: B

40   Authorities should take measures to ensure that there will be adequately paid work for everyone.

Location: 13th paragraph (Second last paragraph)

Explanation: The main keyword ‘authorities’ has been written as ‘governments’ in the last line of the passage. The writer says, ‘bold new policies that guarantee full employment, fair incomes…Here ‘fair income’ refers to paid work. Therefore, the answer is C.

Answer: C

List of people

A     Stella Pachidi

    Hamish Low

    Ewan McGaughey

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