• When a group of people lives together and they have a sense of blood relation, it is called
  • Every family member has its own position in the


NOTE: Children are considered as future of a family, grandparents have the experience so they represent the past and the parents are the present of the family, as they have decision making power.  An ideal family is that which has a good combination of past, present and future.

 Family Roles: Every individual of a family has a set of responsibility for other family members.

v Family Size: Types of family size – Joint family and Nuclear family.

The reasons of small family sizes: – Migration of people from one place to another in search of: Work, Study & For better environment

v The Generation Gap: Generation gap is that situation when the generations living together in a family do not coordinate properly.

Ø Reasons:-

Migration – Due to this they do not spend much time with each other, so that they can understand each other’s feelings. They mostly talk through technology, by which they cannot make much stronger bond.

  • Digitalization and modernization – Due to this focus has shifted from family to strangers which every individual meets through
  • Busy Lifestyle – Parents are having full time jobs and children are busy with their studies, they do not time even to meals together. This can also contribute to generation gap.

v Discipline (respect and honor):

  • Every family deserves respect and has its own value, which is more in joint families and less in nuclear
  • Main reason for loss of discipline is consumerism and loss of spirituality. This has been increased due to digitalization and People are more focused on materialistic things and they forget to value the importance of life.

Role models: Every elder family member is considered as a role model in traditional families because they have experience of life to share which can be used by the children in their lives.

v Family and education: Family is the first school of every child. It provides the informal education (manners, ethics, religion, culture, ethics and norms).

NOTE: The value of family has decreased in western nations, due to consumerism and lack of spirituality. This is very opposite in eastern countries.

Brotherhood: Responsibilities of brother towards other.

Sisterhood: Responsibilities of sister towards brother.

Fatherhood: Responsibilities of father towards children.

Motherhood: Responsibilities of mother towards children. Rearing and nurturing children is responsibility of both parents.

  • Family size:
  • Families in many countries are not as large as they used to be
  • We tend to live in small nuclear families rather than large extended families
  • Parents tend to have fewer children
  • Young children are no longer expected to work
  • Nowadays both parents often work
  • It costs so much to bring children up
  • It is more difficult to raise a large family
  • Working Parents:
  • Children and their parents seem to be less close nowadays
  • Parents spend less time with their children
  • Women traditionally stayed at home to cook, clean and look after children
  • Nowadays both parents often work full time
  • Children may be left alone, or with nannies or babysitters
  • Busy parents have less contact with their children
  • Many families no longer eat meals together
  • Children spend more time with friends or surfing the Internet
  • Negative Effects on Children:
  • The lack of closeness in families can have a negative effect on children
  • Many parents have no idea how their children spend their time
  • Friends, television and the Internet become the main influence on children’s behavior
  • Peer pressure is quite influential for the teenagers.
  • Some of them join gangs
  • Juvenile delinquency is on the increase
  • Parents should be more involved with their children’s upbringing
  • Young people need positive role models
  • Divorce:
  • In the past, divorce was unacceptable
  • It was considered to be embarrassing for a family
  • People stayed together for religious or family reasons
  • Divorce is more socially acceptable nowadays
  • It has become much more common
  • Divorce can be extremely stressful
  • Lone parents may face financial difficulties
  • Many single parents have to rely on benefits paid by the state
  • Divorce can have a negative effect on children
  • Children from single-parent families are more likely to get lower grades or drop out of school.
  • The rise in divorce rates may be connected to some social problems
Sample Topics:


  • More and more people today are moving away from where their friends and family live. Do the advantages of this trend outweigh the disadvantages?
  • In some places, old age is valued, while in other cultures youth is considered more important. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  • Some believe that younger family members should be legally responsible for supporting older family members when they become physically, mentally and financially unable to look after themselves. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • In the 20th century, contact between many different parts of the world has developed rapidly through air travel and telecommunications. Do the advantages of this outweigh the disadvantages?
  • Today family members eat fewer meals together.

Why is this? Is this a positive or negative trend?




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