Insight or evolution?- Reading Passage Answer Explanations

Insight or evolution?- Reading Passage Answer Explanations

Note- Before solving this passage, students must consider that there is a chronological pattern to solve this Passage. Students must start with ‘True, False and Not Given’, followed by MCQs. Summary with Options must be done in the end.

The keywords are underlined in the Questions which can help to locate the answers.

Questions 27-31
Choose the correct letter, ABC or D.
Write the correct letter in boxes 27-31 on your answer sheet.

27   The purpose of the first paragraph is to

  defend particular ideas.
  compare certain beliefs.
  disprove a widely held view.
  outline a common assumption.

Location: 1st paragraph

Explanation: The main keyword of the question is ‘purpose’ which has been in the first line of the paragraph. ‘Scientific discovery is popularly believed to result from the sheer genius…’This statement is a common assumption.

Answer: D

28   What are the writers doing in the second paragraph?

  criticising an opinion
  justifying a standpoint
  explaining an approach
  supporting an argument

Location: 2nd paragraph (second line)

Explanation: The answer is in the second line of the paragraph. The writer says ‘There may be some limited truth to this view. However, we believe that it largely misrepresents…Here writer directly criticize the particular opinion.

Answer: A

29   In the third paragraph, what do the writers suggest about Darwin and Einstein?

  They represent an exception to a general rule.
  Their way of working has been misunderstood.
  They are an ideal which others should aspire to.
  Their achievements deserve greater recognition.

Location: 3rd paragraph

Explanation: The Main keywords of the question are ‘Darwin and Einstein’ helps us to locate the answer in the first line of the 3rd paragraph. The writer says, ‘setting aside such greats as-Darwin and Einstein-whose monumental contributions are duly celebrated’…Here writer is telling about Darwin and Einstein view instead of general view. Therefore, the best answer is A.

Answer: A

30   John Nicholson is an example of a person whose idea

  established his reputation as an influential scientist.
  was only fully understood at a later point in history.
  laid the foundations for someone else’s breakthrough.
  initially met with scepticism from the scientific community.

Location: 4th paragraph (Last line)

Explanation: The main keyword ‘John Nicholson’ helps to locate the answer in 4th paragraph as it is as ‘Nicholson also proposed a novel…Niels Bohr, the Nobel prize-winning….jumped off from his interesting idea….This statement means from Nicholson theory’s Neil Bohr invented famous model of the atom.

Answer: C

31   What is the key point of interest about the ‘acey-deucy’ stirrup placement?

  the simple reason why it was invented
  the enthusiasm with which it was adopted
  the research that went into its development
  the cleverness of the person who first used it

Location: A

Explanation: The main keyword helps to locate the answer in the second last line of the paragraph and it is as ‘He suffered a leg injury, which left him unable to fully bend his left knee…Here, his leg injury was the simple reason why acey-deucy’ stirrup placement was invented. This is the key point of interest as compare to other options.

Answer: A

Insight or evolution?- Reading Passage Answer Explanations

Questions 32-36
Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 3?
In boxes 32-36 on your answer sheet, write
YES                  if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer
NO                   if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer
NOT GIVEN    if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
 

32   Acknowledging people such as Plato or da Vinci as geniuses will help us understand the process by which great minds create new ideas.

Location: 8th paragraph
Explanation: The main keyword of the question is ‘Plato or da vinci’ which is exactly in the first line of the paragraph. The question statement contradicts with the statement of the passage as it is that ‘geniuses will help us understand the process…but in the passage it is clearly states that these notions do not explain the evolution of human innovations.

Answer: No

33   The Law of Effect was discovered at a time when psychologists were seeking a scientific reason why creativity occurs.

Location: 9th paragraph
Explanation: Though the main keywords of the question ‘Law of Effect’ and ‘psychologists’ are there in the first line of the paragraph but  no reference is regarding ‘why creativity occurs’ thus, no information available.

Answer: Not Given

34   The Law of Effect states that no planning is involved in the behaviour of organisms.

Location: 9th paragraph
Explanation: The answer to this question is in the last line of the 8th paragraph. ‘Without any end objective in sight…’ from the passage is as ‘no planning is involved…’in the question. Therefore, this makes it clear that the information in the passage and question is same.

Answer: Yes

35   The Law of Effect sets out clear explanations about the sources of new ideas and behaviours.

Location: 10th paragraph
Explanation: The answer to this question is in the second line of the paragraph. The Main Keywords of the question ‘ideas and behaviors’ are as it is in the passage. Here in the question is ‘clear explanation’ which is opposite to ‘not as clearly known as…in the passage.

Answer: No

36   Many scientists are now turning away from the notion of intelligent design and genius.

Location: 11th paragraph
Explanation: Though the Main keyword of the question ‘intelligent design and genius’ are there in the last line of the passage but there is no information regarding how scientists are now turning away from the notion. Here ‘turning away’ means refusing something.

Answer: Not Given
 
Questions 37-40
Complete the summary using the list of words, A-G, below.
Write the correct letter, A-G, in boxes 37-40 on your answer sheet.
 
The origins of creative behaviour

The traditional view of scientific discovery is that breakthroughs happen when a single great mind has sudden 37 …………………….

Location: 1st paragraph
Explanation: The answer to this question is in the last line of the paragraph. The main keyword of the question ‘breakthroughs’ is exactly the same in the passage. ‘Single great mind has sudden’ in the question is as ‘ideas spontaneously pop into someone’s head…in the paragraph. Moreover, ‘convention wisdom also places great weight… in the paragraph means inspiration.

Answer: F

Although this can occur, it is not often the case. Advances are more likely to be the result of a longer process. In some cases, this process involves 38 …………………… such as Nicholson’s theory about proto-elements.

Location: 3rd paragraph (first line)
Explanation: The Main keyword of the question is ‘advances’ which is as ‘innovation’ in the passage. ‘Innovation is more a process of trial and error…is there in the paragraph. Here ‘trial and error’ means mistakes.

Answer: D
In others, simple necessity may provoke innovation, as with Westrope’s decision to modify the position of his riding stirrups. There is also often an element of 39 ……………………, for example, the coincidence of ideas that led to the invention of the Post-It note.
Location: 6th paragraph
Explanation: The location of the answer is in the first line of the paragraph. The main keyword of the question is ‘post-it note’ which is as it is in the paragraph. The writer says ‘plenty of other stories…can arise from error, misadventure…in the passage. That means advances can occur from misadventure (luck).

Answer: E

With both the Law of Natural Selection and the Law of Effect, there may be no clear 40 …………………… involved, but merely a process of variation and selection.

Location: 9th paragraph (Last line)
Explanation: The Main keyword ‘variation and selection’ helps to locate the answer in the 9th paragraph. ‘with both the law…in the question has been as ‘just like Darwin’s law…’Moreover, ‘without any end objective in sight’ means law do not have any clear objective(goal).

Answer: B
  invention               B   goals            compromise
  mistakes                  luck             F   inspiration
  experiments

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