Roman shipbuilding and navigation- Reading Answers Explanations- CAM 16

Roman shipbuilding and navigation- Reading Answers Explanations- CAM 16

Here are explanations of the Questions of passage named ‘Roman shipbuilding and navigation’ which is from the Cambridge 16 book. The Questions that have been asked are True/False/Not Given and Summary Blanks. You will find the Locations of the Reading Answers, Keywords (highlighted and underlined) and justifications

Questions 1-5

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?

In boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE               if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE              if the statement contradicts the information

NOT GIVEN    if there is no information on this

  The Romans’ shipbuilding skills were passed on to the Greeks and the Egyptians.

Location: 1st paragraph

Explanation: The main keywords ‘Greeks and ‘Egyptians’ helps to locate the answer in the last line of the paragraph. The question statement contradicts with the passage statement as the writer says, ‘The Romans were not traditionally sailors…learned to build ships from…Greeks and Egyptians…’which is opposite to ‘skills were passed on to…’Thus; this makes the answer very clear.

Answer: False

2   Skilled craftsmen were needed for the mortise and tenon method of fixing planks.

Location: 2nd paragraph

Explanation:  Though the main keywords ‘mortise’ and ‘tenon’ are there in the middle line of the paragraph but there is no information regarding the need of ‘skilled craftsmen’ thus, no information available.

Answer: Not Given

3   The later practice used by Mediterranean shipbuilders involved building the hull before the frame.

Location: 2nd paragraph

Explanation: The answer to this question is in the middle line of the paragraph. The line starts, ‘Then in the first…..’ and it has been written that ‘building the frame first and then proceeding with the hull…’which is opposite to ‘building the hull before frame…’Thus the question statement contradicts with the passage statement.

Answer: False.

4   The Romans called the Mediterranean Sea Mare Nostrum because they dominated its use.

Location: 3rd paragraph

Explanation: The main keyword ‘Mare Nostrum’ has been written exactly in the last line of the paragraph and the writer says, ‘Roman had control over what they therefore called Mare Nostrum…’Here ‘control over’ and ‘dominated’ are synonyms. Therefore, information in the question is same as in the passage.

Answer: True

5   Most rowers on ships were people from the Roman army.

Location: 4th paragraph

Explanation: The answer to this question is in the last line of the paragraph and it has been written that ‘rowers were not slaves but mostly Roman citizens enrolled in military…’Here ‘military’ and ‘army’ are synonyms. Thus, the information in the question is same as in the passage.

Answer: True.

Roman shipbuilding and navigation- Reading Answers Explanations- CAM 16

Questions 6-13

Complete the summary below.

Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 6-13 on your answer sheet.

Warships and merchant ships

Warships were designed so that they were ………………… and moved quickly. They often remained afloat after battles and were able to sail close to land as they lacked any additional weight.

Location: 3rd paragraph

Explanation: The main keyword ‘warships’ is there in the first line of the paragraph and ‘built’ is visible as ‘designed’ in the passage. Moreover, ‘moved quickly…’in the question and ‘very speedy’ in the paragraph are synonyms. Therefore, it is easy to find an answer.

Answer: Lightweight

A battering ram made of ………………… was included in the design for attacking and damaging the timber and oars of enemy ships.

Location: 3rd paragraph

Explanation: The main keywords ‘battering ram’, ‘timber’ and ‘oars’ are visible as it is in the middle line of the paragraph. The line starts, ‘They had a bronze battering ram, which was used to pierce the timber hulls or break the oars of enemy vessels…’ Here ‘damaging’ and ‘break’ are synonyms. Thus, the answer is Bronze.

Answer: Bronze

Warships, such as the ‘trireme’, had rowers on three different ………………….

Location: 4th paragraph

Explanation: The main keyword ‘trireme’ helps to locate the answer in the second line of the paragraph and it has been written that ‘it had rowers in the top, middle and lower levels…’These are three different levels. Therefore, this makes it easy to understand the answer.

Answer: Levels

Unlike warships, merchant ships had a broad ………………… that lay far below the surface of the sea.

Location: 5th paragraph

Explanation:  Firstly, ‘The keyword of the question i.e. ‘merchant ships…’helps to locate the answer in the first line of the paragraph as it has been written exactly in the passage. Secondly, the writer says, ‘They had a wider hull…unlike warships, their V- shaped hull…deep underwater’. Here, ‘they’ refers to merchant ships. ‘Far below the surface of the sea’ is paraphrased as ‘deep underwater’ in the passage. Moreover, wider and broad are synonyms.

Answer: Hull

Merchant ships were steered through the water with the help of large rudders and a tiller bar. They had both square and 10 ………………… sails.

Location: 5th paragraph

Explanation: The answer to this question is in the fifth line of the paragraph and the writer says, ‘They had from one to three masts with large square sails and a small triangular sail…’Here, this statement makes it clear that two shapes of sails are square and triangular.

Answer: Triangular

On merchant ships and warships, 11 ………………… was used to ensure rowers moved their oars in and out of the water at the same time.

Location: 5th paragraph

Explanation: The location of the answer is in the last line of the paragraph. ‘used to ensure’ is visible as ‘to assist them…’and the writer says, ‘music would be played on an instrument, and oars would then keep time with us…’Here ‘keep time with us’ has been written as ‘moved… in and out at the same time…’ in the question.

Answer: Music

Quantities of agricultural goods such as 12 ………………… were transported by merchant ships to two main ports in Italy.

Location: 6th paragraph

Explanation: The main keyword ‘agricultural goods’ has been written as ‘agricultural products’ in the first line of the passage and it has been written that ‘The cargo on merchant ships included raw materials…and agricultural products(e.g. grain from Egypt..)Here ‘products’ and ‘goods’ are synonyms.

Answer: Grain

The ships were pulled to the shore by 13 …………………. When the weather was clear and they could see islands or land, sailors used landmarks that they knew to help them navigate their route.

Location: 6th paragraph

Explanation: The answer to this question is in the last line of the paragraph and the writer says, ‘large merchant ships….a number of towboats that would drag them to the quay…’Here ‘quay’ and ‘shore’ are synonyms. ‘Pulled’ in the question is visible as ‘drag’ in the passage. Thus, this makes the answer very clear.

Answer: Towboats

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